Children who receive speech and language services in the schools exhibit difficulties in one or more of the following areas:
1. Speech Sound Production: A child may have difficulty producing a sound such as /r/ or /s/ or has difficulty with sound patterns. For example, he/she may say "nake" instead of "snake."
2. Language: A child may have difficulty with receptive language (understanding what is being said to him) or expressive language (being able to communicate his wants, needs, ideas, and/or thoughts). Targeted areas of language include semantics (word meaning), syntax (word order), and pragmatics (social skills). Pre-reading skills such as rhyming may also be targeted.
3. Fluency: A child may produce dysfluent speech and exhibit behaviors such as repeating a word or part of a word over and over or simply "block" and have great difficulty initiating speech.
4. Voice: A student may be put on vocal rest or a vocal hygiene program if he/she has been diagnosied with vocal nodules or demonstrates a vocally abusive behaviors such as excessive screaming which has lead to persistent hoarseness.